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By removing I/O from the memory map, $D000-$DFFF becomes free RAM. The color RAM at $D800 is swapped out along with the I/O registers and this area can be used for static graphics data such as character sets since the VIC-II cannot see the I/O registers . If all ROMs and the I/O area are swapped out, the entire 64k RAM space is available aside for locations $0/$1.
Commodore BASIC 2.0 is used instead of the more advanced BASIC 4.0 from the mario party 6 emulator downloads PET series, since C64 users were not expected to need the disk-oriented enhancements of BASIC 4.0. The company did not expect many to buy a disk drive, and using BASIC 2.0 simplified VIC-20 owners’ transition to the 64. As is common for home computers of the early 1980s, the C64 comes with a BASIC interpreter, in ROM. KERNAL, I/O, and tape/disk drive operations are accessed via custom BASIC language commands.
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Since 4164 DRAMs are 64K×1, eight chips are needed to make an entire byte, and the computer will not function without all of them present. Thus, the first chip contains Bit 0 for the entire memory space, the second chip contains Bit 1, and so forth. This also makes detecting faulty RAM easy, as a bad chip will display random characters on the screen and the character displayed can be used to determine the faulty RAM.
The C64 performs a RAM test on power up and if a RAM error is detected, the amount of free BASIC memory will be lower than the normal figure. OUT OF MEMORY IN 0 error is displayed rather than the usual BASIC startup banner.
The disk drive has its own interfacing microprocessor and ROM I/O routines, much like the earlier CBM/PET systems and the Atari 400 and Atari 800. This means that no memory space is dedicated to running a disk operating system, as was the case with earlier systems such as the Apple II and TRS-80. In 1990, the C64 was repackaged in the form of a game console, called the C64 Games System , with most external connectivity removed.
The color RAM at $D800 uses a separate 2114 SRAM chip and is gated directly to the VIC-II. Most "breadbox" Commodore 64s used 4164 DRAM, with eight chips to total up 64K of system RAM. Late breadbox models and all C64Cs used DRAM (64K×4) chips which stored 32 KB per chip, so only two were required.