Refractive errors are optical imperfections that prevent the eye from properly focusing light, causing blurred vision.
Refractive errors occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina. The length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens can cause refractive errors
Refraction is the bending of light. Vision occurs when light rays are bent (refracted) as they pass through the cornea and the lens. The light is then focused on the retina. The retina converts the light rays into messages (impulses) that are sent through the optic nerve to the brain. The brain interprets these messages into the images we see.
Types of refractive errors
Myopia (nearsightedness) is a condition where objects up close appear clearly, while objects far away appear blurry. With myopia, light comes to focus in front of the retina instead of on the retina.
Hyperopia (farsightedness) is a common type of refractive error where distant objects may be seen more clearly than objects that are near. However, people experience hyperopia differently. Some people may not notice any problems with their vision, especially when they are young. For people with significant hyperopia, vision can be blurry for objects at any distance, near or far.
Astigmatism is a defect in the eye caused by a deviation from spherical curvature, which results in distorted images, as light rays are prevented from meeting at a point focus on the retina.
*Presbyopia is an age-related condition in which the ability to focus up close becomes more difficult. As the eye ages, the lens can no longer change shape enough to allow the eye to focus close objects clearly. Usually affects adults above 35 years.
Blurred vision is the most common symptom of refractive errors. Other symptoms may include; double vision, haziness,glare or halos around bright lights,squinting,headaches and eye strain.
An eye care professional can diagnose refractive errors during a comprehensive eye examination when objective and subjective refraction test are done.
Refractive errors can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery.
Eyeglasses are the simplest and safest way to correct refractive errors. Your eye care professional can prescribe appropriate lenses to correct your refractive error and give you optimal vision.
Contact Lenses work by becoming the first refractive surface for light rays entering the eye, causing a more precise refraction or focus. In many cases, contact lenses provide clearer vision, a wider field of vision, and greater comfort. They are a safe and effective option if fitted and used properly. It is very important to wash your hands and clean your lenses as instructed in order to reduce the risk of infection.
Refractive Surgery aims to change the shape of the cornea permanently. This change in eye shape restores the focusing power of the eye by allowing the light rays to focus precisely on the retina for improved vision. There are many types of refractive surgeries. Your eye care professional can help you decide if surgery is a necessary option for you.
ARTICLE BY DR PRINCE OPUNI QUARCOO
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